Soft tissue profile assessment by means of linear and angular parameters in Pakistani population

  • Hafiz Taha Mahmood BDS; Resident Orthodontics, Section of Dentistry, Department of Surgery, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.
  • Sheikh Bilal Badar BDS; Resident Operative Dentistry, Section of Dentistry, Department of Surgery, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.
  • Imtiaz Ahmed BDS, FCPS, M.Orth RCS; Consultant Orthodontist/Professor, Department Of Orthodontics, Dr. Ishrat ul Ibad Khan Institute Of Oral Health Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.
  • Muhammad Uzair Senior Lecturer, Department of Orthodontics, Hamdard University Dental Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.
Keywords: Soft tissue, standard values, cephalometry, Pakistani adults

Abstract

Introduction: The contemporary orthodontics gives more emphasis on the soft tissue paradigm especially the areas around the mouth. Various studies have established norms of different ethnicities and races. Norms of one ethnicity cannot be applied to another ethnicity and race. The objectives of the study was to determine the soft tissue norms of non-growing adults of Pakistani origin and to assess any gender dimorphism in the soft tissue profile analysis.
Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on the lateral cephalograms of esthetically pleasing profiles of undergraduate students (35 males and 35 females) of Dr. Ishrat ul Ebad Khan Institute of Oral health Sciences, Karachi, which were obtained in natural head position. Several soft tissue linear and angular measurements of upper and lower lips, nose, and chin were carried out on lateral cephalogram. An Independent Sample T test was used to compare all the soft tissue cephalometric variables between genders. Results were taken statistically significant at p-value of ≤ 0.05.
Results: Among the linear parameters, we found significant differences in the upper lip length (p <0.001), thickness (p <0.001), prominence (p = 0.03), strain (p <0.001), sulcus depth (p = 0.01) and S plane to upper lip (p = 0.02). The lower lip linear parameters showed significant differences in E (p = 0.02) and S planes (p = 0.01), and H line (p <0.001). Among the angular parameters, we found statistically significant differences in the Z (p <0.001), H line (p = 0.01), angle of facial convexity (p <0.001), nasofacial (p = 0.04), nasomental (p = 0.05) and nasolabial angles (p <0.001).
Conclusions: Males showed more prominent upper and lower lips, decreased prominence of nasal tip and increased soft tissue chin thickness as compared to females. Significant differences were found in various angular parameters among males and females.

Published
2019-09-15
How to Cite
Mahmood, H., Badar, S., Ahmed, I., & Uzair, M. (2019). Soft tissue profile assessment by means of linear and angular parameters in Pakistani population. Pakistan Orthodontic Journal, 11(1), 2-8. Retrieved from https://poj.org.pk/index.php/poj/article/view/250
Section
Original Articles