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Posteroanterior cephalometric norms in Pakistani adults


  • Muhammad Ilyas
  • Waheed ul Hamid
  • Asmi Shaheen


Class I occlusion, Pakistani population, Asymmetry


Introduction: Posteroanterior cephalometric (PAC) projections and relevant analyses constitute an important adjunct for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the dentofacial region.  PA cephalometric films can be used to evaluate vertical, transverse and sagittal dimensions. More over dentoalveolar/ facial asymmetries, dental / skeletal cross bites and functional mandibular displacement can also be assessed. PAC norms for different ethnic and racial groups have been established in many studies.  The objective of present study was to determine the norms of postero-anterior cephalometric measurements in Pakistani adult population.

Material and Methods: 100 subjects including 47 males and 53 females (18-35 years) with skeletal class I were included in the study. PAC was taken in standardized conditions. 13 linear transverse skeletal and dental measurements were done for each radiograph.

Results: The data was processed using SPSS. For each variable mean and standard deviations were calculated by applying descriptive analysis.

Conclusions: PA cephalometric norms for Pakistani adults are close to Rickett’s Posteroanterior cephalometric norms. Clinically this will help orthodontists and maxillofacial surgeons to get more definite and predicted results in their treatment domains.

Author Biographies

Muhammad Ilyas

BDS, Resident, Department of Orthodontics, de’Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore

Waheed ul Hamid

BDS, MCPS, MS, M-OrthRCS, Professor & Head Department of Orthodontics, de’ Montmorency College of Dentistry Lahore.

Asmi Shaheen

BDS, Resident, Department of Orthodontics, de’ Montmorency College of Dentistry Lahore.


How to Cite

Ilyas, M., Hamid, W. ul, & Shaheen, A. (2012). Posteroanterior cephalometric norms in Pakistani adults. Pakistan Orthodontic Journal, 4(1), 10–16. Retrieved from



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