Pakistan Orthodontic Journal Logo

Skeletal cephalometric norms of Pakistani population


  • Usman Ahmed BDS, M Orth RCSEd, FCPS, FFD RSCI; Assistant Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Foundation University Dental College, Foundation University, Islamabad.
  • Amjad Mahmood BDS, FDS RCS; Principal and Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Margalla Institute of Health Sciences, Rawalpindi.
  • Rozina Nazir BDS, FCPS, MHPE; Dean and Professor of Orthodontics, Foundation University College of Dentistry and Hospital, Foundation University Islamabad.


Cephalometry, facial bones, orthodontics, reference values


Introduction: Cephalometric measurements play a vital role in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. This is done by comparing the patient's measurements with normal reference group of a certain population. The aim of this study was to establish norms of the commonly used skeletal cephalometric readings for Pakistani population.

Material and methods: A total of 1000 patients were selected from different areas of Pakistan (417 males of age 18 years and above, 583 females of age 15 years and above). The inclusion criteria were esthetically pleasing facial profiles as assessed on profile photographs which were analyzed by three different orthodontists separately. Patients having dentofacial defects, trauma, orthodontic treatment and facial cosmetic surgery were excluded. Cephalometric measurements of SNA, SNB, ANB, SN-MP, SN-PP, SN-Occ and MMA were recorded and analyzed for descriptive statistics in SPSS (version 24.0). The norms established in this way were then compared with the standard established values of Caucasians by independent t test keeping p value ?0.05 as significant.

Results: The mean values and standard deviations obtained were SNA=81.87°±3.29, SNB=79.05°±3.28, ANB=2.85°±1.63, SN-MP=31.11°±4.34, SN-PP=7.31°±2.59, SN-Occ=14.94°±3.23 and MMA= 23.89°±3.71. The results of comparison with Caucasian norms were significant for all the measurements (p<0.001) except for SNA (p=0.157).

Conclusions: This study establishes the commonly used skeletal cephalometric norms for Pakistani population. These norms although being statistically significant have difference of not more than 2° for any of these measurements.




How to Cite

Usman Ahmed, Amjad Mahmood, & Rozina Nazir. (2022). Skeletal cephalometric norms of Pakistani population. Pakistan Orthodontic Journal, 14(2), 77–82. Retrieved from



Original Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)