Correlation of mandibular incisors proclination and gingival recession in orthodontic patients

  • Khalid Hassan Khan BDS; Registrar, Orthodontic department, Bacha Khan Medical College, Mardan
  • Kawish Syed BDS, MCPS; Associate Professor, Department of Periodontology, Sardar Begum Dental College, Gandahara University, Peshawar.
  • Muhammad Asim BDS, FCPS; Assistant Professor, Orthodontic department, Bacha Khan Medical College, Mardan.
  • Dania Hassan BDS; Resident, Department of Oral Biology, Peshawar Dental College, Peshawar.
  • Muhammad Saud BDS, MDS; Assistant Professor, Orthodontic department, Khyber College of Dentistry, Peshawar.
  • Shahab Adil BDS, FCPS; Professor, Orthodontic department, Peshawar Dental College, Peshawar.
Keywords: Biotype, gingival, lower incisor inclination


Introduction: Evaluation of the gingival biotype is an imperative to commencing orthodontic therapy as it forms the soft tissue envelops for tooth movement.

The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between lower incisors inclination (IMPA) with type of gingival recession/gingival biotype in patients reporting for orthodontic treatment.

Material and methods: This cross-sectional study was consisted of 50 orthodontic patients. Patients with history of prior orthodontic treatment or periodontal surgical procedure, hypodontia in anterior, gingivitis, large restorations, pregnant females, using medicines with known effects on periodontal soft tissues (e.g. Phenytoin), requiring antibiotics were excluded. Gingival recession and gingival biotype of the participants were recorded from the intraoral photograph and clinical examination. Inclination of lower incisors was traced and calibrated on lateral cephalogram. Data were entered and analyzed using the SPSS (version 20.0). The correlation between the gingival recession, gingival biotype and incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) was assessed using the Spearman correlation co-efficient test. P≤0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

Results: Of total 50 patients 23(46%) were males and 27(54%) were females. The mean age was 21.3±3.45 years. There was no significant difference in Miller’s classes of gingival recession in both male and female (P=0.65). The gingival recession and biotype had weak and negative but statistically significant correlation with the IMPA (r=-.023), (r=-.025) respectively.

Conclusions: There is weak and negative correlation between lower incisor inclination and gingival biotype /recession. Although correlation is weak but statistically significant; so great care should be taken during changing inclination of lower incisor during orthodontic treatment.

How to Cite
Khan, K., Syed, K., Asim, M., Hassan, D., Saud, M., & Adil, S. (2022). Correlation of mandibular incisors proclination and gingival recession in orthodontic patients. Pakistan Orthodontic Journal, 13(2), 77-80. Retrieved from
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